Alternative Linux commands

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(1) alternative Linux commands to complete the same task, (2) The equivalent or similar commands between Windows and Linux system.

Owl icon.jpg Help for command:
Linux Os linux.png or Mac Os mac.png : Type command_name --help or man command_name  ;
Win Os windows.png : Type command_name /? "Open Source tools Cygwin which provide functionality similar to a Linux distribution on Windows"

Text file manipulation[edit]

Display the content of text file[edit]

Display the first lines of text file[edit]

  • head [options] filename (OS: Linux   )
  • vi [options] filename (and press gg) (Linux   )
  • vim [options] filename (and press gg) (Linux   ); Open file and press gg for gVim (Win   )

Display the last few lines of text file[edit]

Display the entire content of text file[edit]

  • vi [options] filename (Linux   )
  • cat <filename> (Linux   )
  • type <filename> (Win   )

Display the partial content of large text file page by page[edit]

  • cat <filename> | less (Linux   or Cygwin on Win   )   Chinese issue[1]
  • type <filename> | more (Win   ) If the file was encoded in UTF-8, you need to key in chcp 65001 first [2].

Display only certain lines by number[edit]

text processing - With the Linux "cat" command, how do I show only certain lines by number - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange

Newline count (count the number of lines of a file), word count[edit]

  • wc -l <filename> for Linux   [3] ex: wc -l *.txt to print the newline count of txt files of the current folder
  • find . -type f -exec cat {} + | wc -l for Linux   & Mac   to print the newline count of all files on all subdirectories[4]
  • wc -l "$(cygpath -u '<path to file>')" for cygwin on Win   ex: wc -l "$(cygpath -u 'c:\Program Files\file.txt')"[5]

Save the console message as text file[edit]

Save the Unix manpage as plain text file

Search text in a file[edit]

  • grep command for multiple files: grep -ir "string to search" /path/to/directory or grep keyword /path/to/file (Linux   )
  • vim: (1)vim [options] filename (2)press /keyword (Linux   )
  • cat & grep: cat /path/to/file | grep keyword (Linux   ) keyword is case sensitive

Search text in a compressed text file

  • zcat & grep: cat /path/to/compressed_text.gz | grep keyword (Linux   )[6]

Search text in files[7]

Merge multiple plain text files[edit]

Step 1: check the last line of text file is newline[8]

Step 2: Merge the content

  • copy *.txt > bundle.txt or copy file1.txt file2.txt > bundle.txt on Win  
  • cat *.txt > bundle.txt or cat file1.txt file2.txt > bundle.txt on Linux   [9][10]

Step 3: (optional) Remove the duplicated lines

  • sort -us -o bundle_unique.txt bundle.txt[11] OS: Linux   , cygwin of Win   "-u means Unique keys; -s means stable sort; -o means output" quoted from sort manual.

file operation[edit]

Find a file by filename[edit]

  •   locate command (Linux   ) ex: locate filename to locate the filename quickly. [12]
  • find command (Linux   ) ex: sudo find / -iname filename Find the case-insensitive file name Under the path / (root folder) [13]
  • dir command (Win   ) ex: dir /s filename [14][15]   I have no idea to specify the file path to find the file.

Copy & overwrite file[edit]

overwrite file without prompt (confirmation): cp command

  • cp -f to_be_copy.file to_be_overwrote.file (Linux   )[16]
  • /bin/cp -f to_be_copy.file to_be_overwrote.file (Linux   )

Copy old directory to new directory[edit]

  • cp -a old_dir new_dir/ (Linux   )[17][18]
    • If the folder new_dir exists already, system will create the folder old_dir and all files and sub folders under old_dir will copy to the path new_dir/old_dir.
    • If the folder new_dir NOT exists, all files and sub folders under old_dir will copy to the folder new_dir.
  • cp -a old_dir/* new_dir/ (Linux   ): All files and sub folders under old_dir will copy to the folder new_dir.
  • copy /Y old_dir new_dir/ (Win   )[19]
  • make new directory & copy all old files to new directory
    • mkdir new_dir
    • cp old_dir/* new_dir
  • How to move all files in current folder to subfolder? - Ask Ubuntu

Rename (move) files or directory[edit]

  • mv old_folder_name new_folder_name (Linux   )[20]
  • mv /path/to/file /path/to/new_folder_name (Linux   )
  • rename old_folder_name new_folder_name (Win   )[21]

Delete files or directory[edit]

delete all files or directory

  • rm -rf /Name_of_directory to delete all files under the 'Name_of_directory (Linux   )[22]
  • del Name_of_directory (Win   )
    • After executed del Name_of_directory but the empty directory directory_name will be left.
    • Command delete is not available in Win XP
  • rsync
    •   quick for many small files (1) create a empty folder ex: mkdit /path/to/source (2) To empty the target folder, keyin rsync -avP --delete /path/to/source/ /path/to/target/ (Linux   )
    • rsync --delete-before -a -H -v --progress --stats /path/to/empty/folder/ /path/to/target_folder_will_be_deleted/ (Linux   )[23] un-verified
  • S/FTP to the server and delete selected files

Delete the files which their file name were matched with the naming rule when the number of files is too many.

  • find . -name 'naming_rule' -delete or find . -name 'naming_rule' -type f -delete [24][25][26]

Download file from remote server[edit]

  • FTP
  • wget (with progress bar): wget http://path.to/file
  • SVN update: svn up http://remote.svn.server/path/ /local/path/ --username=your_account and key in your SVN password [27]
  • more on File transfer methods


File compression and decompression[edit]

compress

decompress

  • gunzip -c big.file.gz > big.file(Linux   ) keep the gz file[29]
  • gzip -d big.file.gz(Linux   ) NOT keep the gz file

ref

List directory or files / list directory contents[edit]

  • ls (Linux   ) ls - list directory contents
    • List detailed information of files. e.g. ls -lh[30] [31]
    • List detailed information of files and sort by modification time. ls -lht
    • List top N files and sort by modification time. ls -lht | head -N e.g. ls -lht | head -10 First line is the total file size of specified folder.[32]
  • ll (Linux   ) ll = ls -l
  • Print the entire path of files and level-unlimited sub-directories in the current directory. On Win   using dir/s/b, and on Linux   using find /path/to/files/ -print [33].
  •   create ls command in Win   command prompt: echo dir %1 > %systemroot%\system32\ls.bat Thanks, hmjd![34]
  • List all files and directories including hidden ones in the current directory. On Win   is dir /a, and on Mac   or Linux   is ls -a[35][36].

Verify if a file or a directory exists

  • On Linux   : ls /path/to/file or ls -d /path/to/directory/ e.g. ls -d ~/ to list your home directory[37].
  • On Win   :
    • dir C:\path\to\file or dir C:\path\to\directory\
    • IF EXIST [38][39]
SET a=C:\path\to\file
REM -- If the directory was separated the \ symbol & the path NOT contains space
IF EXIST %a% (ECHO YES) ELSE (ECHO No)

SET a="C:\path\to\directory contains space\space"
REM -- If the directory was separated the \ symbol & the path contains space
IF EXIST %a% (ECHO YES) ELSE (ECHO No)

SET a=C:/path/to/file
REM -- If the directory was separated the / symbol, the next command replace / with \ symbol.
SET a=%a:/=\%
IF EXIST %a% (ECHO YES) ELSE (ECHO No)

troubleshooting

SET a = C:\path\to\file
REM -- Correct command: SET a=C:\path\to\file
IF EXIST %a% (ECHO YES) ELSE (ECHO No)
REM -- the returned result will not correct!

Print the current directory / where am i[edit]

  • Linux   : pwd print name of working directory. More on pwd.
  • Win   : echo %cd% current directory [40]

Change directory to my home directory[edit]

  • cd ~/ or cd $HOME (Linux   ) will switch to my home directory ex: /Users/ACCOUNT[41]
  • cd %UserProfile% (Win   ) will switch to my home directory ex: C:\Users\ACCOUNT more on MS_Windows_Explorer[42]

network[edit]

show ip

ping   You may got no response if the server was disabled the ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) response.

  • ping domain_or_ip (Linux   )
  • ping domain_or_ip -t (Win   )

whois: search the information of domain (related: Domain Name Register)

TRACERT (trace route)

  • traceroute domain_or_ip (Linux   ) & Mac  
  • tracert domain_or_ip -t (Win   )

apache operation[edit]

check apache servie is running or not

  • service --status-all | grep -i httpd (Linux   [45][46])
  • netstat -npl | grep httpd for Linux   [47]
  • netstat -an | find /i "listening" (Win   ) find the local open ports & find local address TCP 0.0.0.0:80 is listening[48]
  • more on connection test...

Where is apache installed?[49]

  • cat /etc/rc.d/rc.local if the apache service is already launched

check which mpm (multi processing module) apache is running

  • httpd -l (Linux   & Win   ) ex: Linux   /usr/local/httpd/bin/httpd -l or Win   x:\apache\bin>httpd -l where x:\apache is the installation folder of apache [50]

mysql operation[edit]

MySQL commands: 1. Exporting data into MySql sql file & 2. Importing data from MySql sql file

install package[edit]


system operation[edit]

show current time[edit]

  • date (Linux   ) output the system date: Thu Oct 25 15:05:10 CST 2012 [53][54]
  • TZ=Asia/Taipei date (Linux   ) output the time from the Taipei/CST timezone [55]
  • date/t (Win   ) (parameter: /t will not ask you to change the current date)
output:
OS in English: Thu 05/03/2012
OS in Chinese (XP): 2012/05/03 星期四
OS in Chinese (Windows 8, 10): 2014/07/01 週二
  • prompt $d $t $_$P$G (Win   [56])
output:
OS in Chinese (Windows 10): 2017/02/03 週五 15:35:31.61

specify the location where Linux or MS-DOS looks when using a command[edit]

reboot the system/server[edit]

Shutdown system at a specific date time.

OS version[edit]


Show the process list & kill the process[edit]

Show the process list & kill the high-resource-consumption process[63][64]

  1. display the process list
    • top "display Linux tasks" for Linux   or
    • top -a or ps aux --sort -rss | more[65] "Sort by memory usage" for Linux  
  2. keyin q to leave the process list
  3. find which process to be killed. And then keyin:
    • kill <PID> or kill -<PID> PID. To kill the process with PID number: 101, enter kill 101. [66]
    • kill -9 <PID>. Force to kill the process with PID number: 101, enter kill -9 101. [67]

Search and extract string from command output[edit]

  • linux command | awk '/string/' (Linux   )[68] ex:
    • keyin dpkg --get-selections | awk '/tar/' to search the installed package naming tar for Ubuntu.[69]
    • keyin dpkg --get-selections | awk '/zip|unzip/' to search the installed package naming zip or unzip for Ubuntu.
  • linux command | grep string (Linux   ) ex: keyin yum list installed | grep tar to search the installed package naming tar for CentOS.[70]
  • Windows command | find "string" (Win   ) ex: netstat -a | find "3306" (note: enclose string in double quotation marks)[71]

System CPU, memory and disk space usage[edit]

CPU usage / system load average

  • Win   :
    • namespace: ROOT\CIMV2
    • WQL query: SELECT LoadPercentage FROM Win32_Processor; No need to divid by CPU cores number for Win8
    • output example: 24 (UInt16, 16 bit Unsigned Integer) unit: %
    • CPU usage = LoadPercentage; unit: %
  • freebsd, Linux   & Mac   :

Memory usage

  • Win   :
    • namespace: ROOT\CIMV2
    • WQL query: SELECT FreePhysicalMemory, TotalVisibleMemorySize FROM Win32_OperatingSystem[72]
    • output example: 21683460 (UInt64, 64 bit Unsigned Integer) unit: KB
    • memory usage = (FreePhysicalMemory * 100) / TotalVisibleMemorySize; unit: %
  • freebsd & Linux   :
    • command: free
    • output example:
                               total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
                    Mem:       8060416    7922496     137920        120     183608     526180
                    -/+ buffers/cache:    7212708     847708
                    Swap:      4194300    1219364    2974936
    • memory usage = 7922496 / 8060416; unit: %
  • Mac   (known as Darwin):
    • command: top -l 1
    • output example: PhysMem: 8017M used (1486M wired), 172M unused.
    • memory usage: 172 / (8017+172); unit: %


hard disk usage

  • df command "disk space usage" for Linux   df -h
  • du command "estimate file space usage" of specific folder for Linux  
    • du -h /path/to/folder/ Detailed output of hard disk usage of specific folder and child folders.
    • du -hcs /path/to/folder/ Brief output of total hard disk usage.
    • du --max-depth=1 -B M /path/to/folder/ | sort -g[73]Output example:
0M      /sys
1M      /tmp
9M      /run
27M     /etc
36M     /root
165M    /boot
1647M   /usr
49287M  /var
51379M  /home
102547M /

Scan the disk[edit]

Switch the user account[edit]

switch the current user

  • su on Linux   switch the current user to super user [75]
  • su - <user name> on Linux   switch the current user to another user

prints the current user

  • whoami on Linux   & Win   "prints the effective user ID"[76][77]

Clean the screen/console[edit]

help for command[edit]

view the documentation for this command[edit]

  • command --help or man command (Linux   )
  • command /? (Win   )

find the path of an executable[edit]

  • which command for Linux   ex: which wc will return the path '/usr/bin/wc'
  • which command or where command for Mac   ex: which wc will return the path '/usr/bin/wc'
  • where command for Win   version 2003 or 8. ex: where nslookup will return the path 'C:\Windows\System32\nslookup.EXE'[80]   not all DOS command will return the information ex: where cd, where dir. Related page: How to setup my system path

emergency exit[edit]

  • ctrl+c or ctrl+break (Linux   , Win   & Mac   )
  • Pause/Break (Linux   ) ex: I pressed the key to leave from the warning message "Vim: Warning: Output is not to a terminal".

相關新聞聯播[edit]

references[edit]

  1. linux - Show special characters in Unix while using 'less' Command - Stack Overflow un-verified
  2. (Solved) Window命令視窗中文亂碼 改編碼方法
  3. wc (Unix) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. linux - Use wc on all subdirectories to count the sum of lines - Stack Overflow
  5. Cygwin convert windows path to linux path
  6. Unix / Linux: cat .GZ Compressed Text File On Screen
  7. 鳥哥的 Linux 私房菜 -- 學習 bash shell
  8. eof - Linux - check if there is a newline at the end of a file - Stack Overflow
  9. Terminal 101: Join Multiple Files Together with Cat
  10. How to merge all (text) files in a directory into one? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
  11. linux - How to remove duplicate lines in a large multi-GB textfile? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
  12. Linux 快速尋找檔案 - locate - Tsung's Blog
  13. Find command: how to ignore case? - Unix and Linux; Find the case-sensitive file name Under the path / (root folder) ex: find / -name filename ref:Tips For Linux - How to find files in Linux using 'find'
  14. How to find a file in MS-DOS.
  15. /S 顯示指定目錄及所有子目錄中的檔案。 (引用自 dir /? 命令說明)
  16. Linux:檔案複製強制覆寫, cp force overwrite @ 符碼記憶
  17. from manual:
    -a, --archive
                  same as -dR --preserve=all
    -d     same as --no-dereference --preserve=links
    --preserve[=ATTR_LIST]
                  preserve the specified attributes (default: mode,ownership,timestamps), if  possible  addi-
                  tional attributes: context, links, xattr, all
    -R, -r, --recursive
                  copy directories recursively
  18. unix - How to copy with cp to include hidden files and hidden directories and their contents? - Super User
  19. /Y 不顯示覆寫現存目的檔案的確認提示。 (引用自 copy /? 命令說明)
  20. Linux Rename Files, Folders or Directories
  21. MS-DOS ren and rename command help
  22. [OPTION]
    • -r remove directories and their contents recursively;
    • -f ignore nonexistent files, never prompt
    (above content cited from linux documentation: rm --help)
  23. Linux下使用rsync最快速删除海量文件的方法_果冻的剥壳_新浪博客
  24. How to recursively remove .DS_Store files on Mac OS X | Tangential Musings
  25. XYZ的筆記本: Linux 使用 rm 刪除檔案,出現 /bin/rm: Argument list too long
  26. Linux find command
  27. using the www account su - www -c "svn up http://remote.svn.server/path/ /local/path/ --username=your_account --password=xxx"
  28. A Unix Utility You Should Know About: Pipe Viewer - good coders code, great reuse
  29. linux - How do you gunzip a file and keep the .gz file? - Super User
  30. 鳥哥的 Linux 私房菜 -- Linux 的檔案權限與目錄配置
  31. [OPTION]
    • -l use a long listing format
    • -h, --human-readable; with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G) Quoted from linux man ls
  32. How to list top 10 files | Unix Linux Forums | UNIX for Dummies Questions & Answers
  33. linux - Making ls output like dir /b /s - Super User
  34. How to create ls in windows command prompt? - Stack Overflow
  35. How to see hidden files in MS-DOS and the Command Prompt
  36. Bash Shell: Display All Hidden Dot Files In a Directory
  37. Single linux command to return to home directory
  38. How to verify if a file exists in a Windows .BAT file? - Stack Overflow
  39. Windows shell string operations (changing backslash to slash) - Stack Overflow
  40. Windows equivalent to UNIX pwd - Stack Overflow
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  47. Linux / UNIX Find Out What Program / Service is Listening on a Specific TCP Port
  48. Netstat
  49. Enabling and disabling services during start up in GNU/Linux | All about Linux
  50. Check which mpm (multi processing module) apache is running | Binary Tides
  51. Linux / Unix pv Command: Monitor Progress of Data Sent Via a Pipe
  52. ivarch.com: Pipe Viewer
  53. 鳥哥的 Linux 私房菜 -- NTP 時間伺服器
  54. DATE (command) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  55. How can I have `date` output the time from a different timezone? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
  56. batch file - How to measure execution time of command in windows command line? - Stack Overflow
  57. 鳥哥的 Linux 私房菜 -- 檔案與目錄管理 -- 關於執行檔路徑的變數: $PATH
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  59. Windows原來也有內建好用的關機軟體(Shutdown.exe) | ㊣軟體玩家
  60. How to shutdown Linux at a specific datetime from terminal? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
  61. The Will Will Web | 如何查詢 Linux 的種類與版本 ( Linux Standard Base )
  62. Find windows OS version from command line
  63. How do I Find Out Linux CPU Utilization? - nixCraft
  64. Show All Running Processes in Linux
  65. 鳥哥的 Linux 私房菜 -- 第十六章、程序管理與 SELinux 初探
  66. Kill Process in Linux or Terminate a Process in UNIX / Linux Systems, kill(1): terminate process - Linux man page
  67. 鳥哥的 Linux 私房菜 -- 第十六章、程序管理與 SELinux 初探
  68. shell script - How to search and extract string from command output? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
  69. logical operators in grep
  70. Unix/Linux grep command examples | grep command in Unix and Linux | grep examples | alvinalexander.com
  71. Microsoft Windows XP - Find
  72. Collect Memory Data from WMI (Win32)
  73. 【系統】使用 du 來看磁碟的使用空間 @ My Life :: 隨意窩 Xuite日誌
  74. Cloud Provider and Dedicated Server Hosting in Dallas, TX
  75. Linux su command help and examples
  76. Linux whoami command help and examples
  77. Whoami
  78. Cls
  79. Clear! (clear your terminal screen) | Linux.org
  80. What is Windows' equivalent of the "which" command in Unix? Is there an equivalent PowerShell command? - Super User

further reading[edit]